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Drivers for change in the management of prostate cancer - Guidelines and new treatment techniques
By J.M. Wolff and M. Mason.BJU International
Volume 109, Issue SUPPL. 6, June 2012, Pages 33-41
Clinical practice guidelines and new treatment techniques are of particular importance for the effective management of prostate cancer. In Europe, the European Association of Urology guidelines offer a regularly updated evidence-based source of recommendations for the optimal treatment of prostate cancer. This review examines recent changes to guidelines highlighting developments in diagnosis, hormonal therapy in advanced and metastatic disease, bone protection, the definition of new terminology such as castrate-resistant prostate cancer, treatment of relapse after hormonal therapy, and cytotoxic therapy for castrate-resistant prostate cancer. The review also examines new surgical and radiotherapeutic developments in prostate cancer. This includes minimally invasive techniques such as robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, which is becoming the surgical gold standard for clinically localized disease in many countries. Other promising techniques reviewed include cryosurgical ablation of the prostate, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound; with the exception of cryotherapy, these approaches are not currently recommended for routine clinical use. Finally, we will review the evidence supporting intensity modulated radiotherapy, an optimized high-precision form of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy which aims to allow homogeneously increased radiation doses, without increased toxicity to healthy at-risk organs. Novel techniques such as proton beam or carbon ion radiotherapy, which may offer improved and more localized dose distribution with reduced damage to normal tissue, are also examined.
© 2012 The Authors BJU International © 2012 BJU International.