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Quantification of skeletal metastases in castrate-resistant prostate cancer predicts progression-free and overall survival

Tait C. Moore D. Hodgson C. Brown M. Morris T. Growcott J. Malone M. Hughes A. Renehan A. Clarke N.W. Dive C.

BJU International, Volume 114, Issue 6, 1 December 2014, Pages E70-E73

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To report a simplified and effective method for substratification of M1 castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) by correlating progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with simple quantification of skeletal metastases.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
In all, 561 men with M1 CRPC were studied longitudinally. Individual bone scan disease burden, quantified by counting bone metastasis number, was correlated with clinical outcome using specific threshold points of 1-4, 5-20 and >20 detectable lesions.

RESULTS:
Patients with a higher metastasis number had a shorter PFS and OS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.4; P < 0.001). Patients with 1-4 metastases had much better PFS and OS than those with 5-20 metastases. The median PFS and OS in the latter was 10.9 (95% CI 8.4-12.8) and 22.1 (95% CI: 18.5-24.5) months, respectively. PFS and OS for patients with >20 metastases were shorter still [median 5.3 (95% CI 3.4-6.9) months and 13.3 (95% CI 11.3-17.6) months, respectively]. Dichotomising into cohorts with 1-4 and ≥5 metastases, the latter group had considerably poorer PFS [8.4 (95% CI 6.8-10.3) months; P < 0.001) and OS [18.7 (95% CI 17.5-22.1) months; P < 0.001].

CONCLUSIONS:
Dichotomising patients with CRPC into cohorts with 1-4 or ≥5 skeletal metastases identifies a better and a worse cohort in a manner that is easy and clinically accessible. This simple method facilitates disease stratification and patient management, enabling clinicians to counsel patients more effectively about long-term outcomes and to help select intervention therapies more effectively.

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